Changing population

Syllabus content:

  1. Population and economic development patterns

How population varies between places

Physical and human factors affecting population distribution at the global scale

Global patterns and classification of economic development:

  • low-income countries
  • middle-income countries and emerging economies
  • high-income countries

Population distribution and economic development at the national scale, including voluntary internal migration, core-periphery patterns and megacity growth

Two detailed and contrasting examples of uneven population distribution

Synthesis, evaluation and skills opportunities

The relative importance of different influences on where people live and spatial interactions between places at varying scales

2.  Changing populations and places

Processes of population change and their effect on people and places:

Population change and demographic transition over time, including natural increase, fertility rate, life expectancy, population structure and dependency ratios

Detailed examples of two or more contrasting countries

The consequences of megacity growth for individuals and societies

One case study of a contemporary megacity experiencing rapid growth

The causes and consequences of forced migration and internal displacement

Detailed examples of two or more forced movements, to include environmental and political push factors, and consequences for people and places

Synthesis, evaluation and skills opportunities

How the impacts of population change and spatial interactions between places can be categorized and represented graphically.

3.  Population possibilities and power over the decision-making process

Population possibilities and power over the decision-making process

Global and regional/continental trends in family size, sex ratios, and ageing/greying

Policies associated with managing population change, focusing on:

  • policies related to ageing societies
  • pro-natalist or anti-natalist policies
  • gender equality policies and anti-trafficking policies

The demographic dividend and the ways in which population could be considered a resource when contemplating possible futures

One case study of a country benefiting from a demographic dividend

Synthesis, evaluation and skills opportunities

How population change may affect the power balance between groups of people at local, national and international scales